Meteor Shower Calendar

The meteor shower calendar is compiled by Jürgen Rendtel since 2016, this way continuing the 25 year series started by Alastair McBeath. The meteor shower calendar is based on information in IMO Monograph No.2: Handbook for Visual Meteor Observers, edited by Jürgen Rendtel, Rainer Arlt and Alastair McBeath, IMO, 1995, additional material extracted from reliable data analyses produced since.

PDF Versions

2023 English
2022 English | German
2021 English | German
2020 English | German Chinese (中文版)
2019 English | German | Chinese (中文版)
2018 English | German | Chinese (中文版) | French
2017 English | German | Chinese (中文版)
2016 English | German | Dutch
2015 English | German | Dutch
2014 English | German
2013 English | Romanian
2012 English
2011 English | Russian
2010 English | Russian
2007 English
2006 English
2005 English

The heart of the Calendar is the Working List of Visual Meteor Showers, thanks to regular updating from analyses using the IMO's Visual Meteor Database, the single most accurate listing available anywhere today for naked-eye meteor observing. Even this can never be a complete list of all meteor showers, since there are many showers which cannot be properly detected visually, and some which only photographic, radar, telescopic, or video observations can separate from the background sporadic meteors, present throughout the year.

The IMO's aims are to encourage, collect, analyze, and publish combined meteor data obtained from sites all over the globe in order to further our understanding of the meteor activity detectable from the Earth's surface. Results from only a few localized places can never provide such total comprehension, and it is thanks to the efforts of the many it IMO observers worldwide since 1988 that we have been able to achieve as much as we have to date. This is not a matter for complacency, however, since it is solely by the continued support of many people across the whole world that our steps towards constructing a better and more complete picture of the near-Earth meteoroid flux can proceed. This means that all meteor workers, wherever they are and whatever methods they use to record meteors, should follow the standard IMO observing guidelines when compiling their information, and submit their data promptly to the appropriate Commission for analysis.

Visual and photographic techniques remain popular for nightly meteor coverage (weather permitting), although both suffer considerably from the presence of moonlight. Telescopic observations are much less popular, but they allow the fine detail of shower radiant structures to be derived, and they permit very low activity showers to be accurately detected. Video methods continue to be dynamically applied as in the last few years, and are starting to bear considerable fruit. These have the advantages, and disadvantages, of both photographic and telescopic observing, plus some of their own, but are increasing in importance. Radio receivers can be utilized at all times, regardless of clouds, moonlight, or daylight, and provide the only way in which 24-hour meteor observing can be accomplished for most latitudes. Together, these methods cover virtually the entire range of meteoroid sizes, from the very largest fireball-producing events (using all-sky photographic and video patrols or visual observations) through to tiny dust grains producing extremely faint telescopic or radio meteors.

However and whenever you are able to observe, we wish you all a most successful year's work and very much look forward to receiving your data.

Clear skies!

There is currently one active major shower: the Orionids.
Next Peak night
Jan 3-4, 2023

Quadrantids (QUA)

Active from December 26th to January 16th, 2023

The Quadrantids have the potential to be the strongest shower of the year but usually fall short due to the short length of maximum activity (6 hours) and the poor weather experienced during early January. The average hourly rates one can expect under dark skies is 25. These meteors usually lack persistent trains but often produce bright fireballs. Due to the high northerly declination (celestial latitude) these meteors are not well seen from the southern hemisphere.

Shower details - Radiant: 15:20 +49.7° - ZHR: 120 - Velocity: 25 miles/sec (medium - 40.2km/sec) - Parent Object: 2003 EH (Asteroid)

Next Peak - The Quadrantids will next peak on the Jan 3-4, 2023 night. On this night, the moon will be 92% full.

Next Peak night
Apr 22-23, 2023

Lyrids (LYR)

Active from April 15th to April 29th, 2023

The Lyrids are a medium strength shower that usually produces good rates for three nights centered on the maximum. These meteors also usually lack persistent trains but can produce fireballs. These meteors are best seen from the northern hemisphere where the radiant is high in the sky at dawn. Activity from this shower can be seen from the southern hemisphere, but at a lower rate.

Shower details - Radiant: 18:10 +33.3° - ZHR: 18 - Velocity: 29 miles/sec (medium - 46.8km/sec) - Parent Object: C/1861 G1 (Thatcher)

Next Peak - The Lyrids will next peak on the Apr 22-23, 2023 night. On this night, the moon will be 9% full.

Next Peak night
May 5-6, 2023

eta Aquariids (ETA)

Active from April 15th to May 27th, 2023

The Eta Aquariids are a strong shower when viewed from the southern tropics. From the equator northward, they usually only produce medium rates of 10-30 per hour just before dawn. Activity is good for a week centered the night of maximum activity. These are swift meteors that produce a high percentage of persistent trains, but few fireballs.

Shower details - Radiant: 22:30 -1° - ZHR: 50 - Velocity: 40.7 miles/sec (swift - 65.5km/sec) - Parent Object: 1P/Halley

Next Peak - The eta Aquariids will next peak on the May 5-6, 2023 night. On this night, the moon will be 100% full.

Next Peak night
Jul 30-31, 2023

Southern delta Aquariids (SDA)

Active from July 18th to August 21st, 2023

The Delta Aquariids are another strong shower best seen from the southern tropics. North of the equator the radiant is located lower in the southern sky and therefore rates are less than seen from further south. These meteors produce good rates for a week centered on the night of maximum. These are usually faint meteors that lack both persistent trains and fireballs.

Shower details - Radiant: 22:42 -16.3° - ZHR: 25 - Velocity: 25 miles/sec (medium - 40km/sec) - Parent Object: 96P/Machholz?

Next Peak - The Southern delta Aquariids will next peak on the Jul 30-31, 2023 night. On this night, the moon will be 95% full.

Next Peak night
Jul 30-31, 2023

alpha Capricornids (CAP)

Active from July 7th to August 15th, 2023

The Alpha Capricornids are active from July 7 through August 15 with a "plateau-like" maximum centered on July 31st. This shower is not very strong and rarely produces in excess of five shower members per hour. What is notable about this shower is the number of bright fireballs produced during its activity period. This shower is seen equally well on either side of the equator.

Shower details - Radiant: 20:26 -9.12° - ZHR: 5 - Velocity: 14 miles/sec (slow - 22km/sec) - Parent Object: 169P/NEAT

Next Peak - The alpha Capricornids will next peak on the Jul 30-31, 2023 night. On this night, the moon will be 95% full.

Next Peak night
Aug 12-13, 2023

Perseids (PER)

Active from July 14th to September 1st, 2023

The Perseids are the most popular meteor shower as they peak on warm August nights as seen from the northern hemisphere. The Perseids are active from July 14 to September 1. They reach a strong maximum on August 12 or 13, depending on the year. Normal rates seen from rural locations range from 50-75 shower members per hour at maximum. The Perseids are particles released from comet 109P/Swift-Tuttle during its numerous returns to the inner solar system. They are called Perseids since the radiant (the area of the sky where the meteors seem to originate) is located near the prominent constellation of Perseus the hero when at maximum activity.

Shower details - Radiant: 03:13 +58° - ZHR: 100 - Velocity: 37 miles/sec (swift - 59km/sec) - Parent Object: 109P/Swift-Tuttle

Next Peak - The Perseids will next peak on the Aug 12-13, 2023 night. On this night, the moon will be 10% full.

Next Peak night
Oct 20-21, 2022

Orionids (ORI)

Active from September 26th to November 22nd, 2022 Currently active

The Orionids are a medium strength shower that sometimes reaches high strength activity. In a normal year the Orionids produce 10-20 shower members at maximum. In exceptional years, such as 2006-2009, the peak rates were on par with the Perseids (50-75 per hour). Recent displays have produced low to average displays of this shower.

Shower details - Radiant: 06:21 +15.6° - ZHR: 20 - Velocity: 41 miles/sec (swift - 66km/sec) - Parent Object: 1P/Halley

Next Peak - The Orionids will next peak on the Oct 20-21, 2022 night. On this night, the moon will be 21% full.

Next Peak night
Nov 4-5, 2022

Southern Taurids (STA)

Active from September 28th to December 2nd, 2022

The Southern Taurids are a long-lasting shower that several peaks during its activity period. The shower is active for more than two months but rarely produces more than five shower members per hour, even at maximum activity. The Taurids (both branches) are rich in fireballs and are often responsible for increased number of fireball reports from September through November.

Shower details - Radiant: 03:35 +14.4° - ZHR: 5 - Velocity: 17.2 miles/sec (slow - 27.7km/sec) - Parent Object: 2P/Encke

Next Peak - The Southern Taurids will next peak on the Nov 4-5, 2022 night. On this night, the moon will be 87% full.

Next Peak night
Nov 11-12, 2022

Northern Taurids (NTA)

Active from October 13th to December 2nd, 2022

This shower is much like the Southern Taurids, just active a bit later in the year. When the two showers are active simultaneously in late October and early November, there is sometimes a notable increase in the fireball activity. There seems to be a seven year periodicity with these fireballs. 2008 and 2015 both produced remarkable fireball activity. 2022 may be the next opportunity.

Shower details - Radiant: 03:55 +22.8° - ZHR: 5 - Velocity: 18 miles/sec (slow - 30km/sec) - Parent Object: 2P/Encke

Next Peak - The Northern Taurids will next peak on the Nov 11-12, 2022 night. On this night, the moon will be 88% full.

Next Peak night
Nov 17-18, 2022

Leonids (LEO)

Active from November 3rd to December 2nd, 2022

The Leonids are best known for producing meteor storms in the years of 1833, 1866, 1966, 1999, and 2001. These outbursts of meteor activity are best seen when the parent object, comet 55P/Tempel-Tuttle, is near perihelion (closest approach to the sun). Yet it is not the fresh material we see from the comet, but rather debris from earlier returns that also happen to be most dense at the same time. Unfortunately, it appears that the earth will not encounter any dense clouds of debris until 2099. Therefore, when the comet returns in 2031 and 2064, there may not be any meteor storms, but perhaps several good displays of Leonid activity when rates are in excess of 100 per hour. Each passing year also presents new possibilities from old debris fields. In 2022, model calculations of Maslov (2007) and Sato (2021) show an approach of the 1733 dust trail on November 19. Maslov gives 06h UT, Sato obtains 06h20m − 06h27m UT (λ = 236 .◦576 and λ = 236 .◦581; different ejection velocities).The possible activity level depends on the ejection velocity (which has a negative sign in this case and observations of meteors from such trails are scarce). Maslov adds: meteors should be bright, a ZHR of 200+ seems possible despite the uncertainties. Sato comments: ZHR may reach 50+ because the model suggests that the dust tends to be concentrated. An encounter with the 1600 trail (weak rate possible near November 18, 07h UT; λ = 235 .◦6) is found by Vaubaillon (2021). A weak rate enhancement may be visible due to the 1800 trail later on November 21, 15h UT (Maslov, 2007).The Leonids are often bright meteors with a high percentage of persistent trains.

Shower details - Radiant: 10:17 +21.6° - ZHR: 15 - Velocity: 43.5 miles/sec (swift - 70km/sec) - Parent Object: 55P/Tempel-Tuttle

Next Peak - The Leonids will next peak on the Nov 17-18, 2022 night. On this night, the moon will be 36% full.

Next Peak night
Dec 13-14, 2022

Geminids (GEM)

Active from November 19th to December 24th, 2022

The Geminids are usually the strongest meteor shower of the year and meteor enthusiasts are certain to circle December 13 and 14 on their calendars. This is the one major shower that provides good activity prior to midnight as the constellation of Gemini is well placed from 22:00 onward. The Geminids are often bright and intensely colored. Due to their medium-slow velocity, persistent trains are not usually seen. These meteors are also seen in the southern hemisphere, but only during the middle of the night and at a reduced rate.

Shower details - Radiant: 07:24 +32.3° - ZHR: 150 - Velocity: 21 miles/sec (medium - 34km/sec) - Parent Object: 3200 Phaethon (asteroid)

Next Peak - The Geminids will next peak on the Dec 13-14, 2022 night. On this night, the moon will be 72% full.

Next Peak night
Dec 21-22, 2022

Ursids (URS)

Active from December 13th to December 24th, 2022

The Ursids are often neglected due to the fact it peaks just before Christmas and the rates are much less than the Geminds, which peaks just a week before the Ursids. Observers will normally see 5-10 Ursids per hour during the late morning hours on the date of maximum activity. There have been occasional outbursts when rates have exceeded 25 per hour. These outbursts appear unrelated to the perihelion dates of comet 8P/Tuttle. This shower is strictly a northern hemisphere event as the radiant fails to clear the horizon or does so simultaneously with the start of morning twilight as seen from the southern tropics.

Shower details - Radiant: 14:36 +75.3° - ZHR: 10 - Velocity: 20.5 miles/sec (medium - 33km/sec) - Parent Object: 8P/Tuttle

Next Peak - The Ursids will next peak on the Dec 21-22, 2022 night. On this night, the moon will be 3% full.